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居然之家携手聚信 重庆家居市场格局巨变

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 杭州严控玻璃石材幕墙使用范围 学校住宅医院等建筑等禁用 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

国家正在准备更多的“后手” 房价下跌或一触即发

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

新兴市场需求减弱使2015年成为全球金融危机爆发以来世界贸易最糟糕的一年,凸显出对于全球经济健康的担忧加深。
今年9月,该指数曾跌至48这个创纪录低点,10月份该读数则为49.9。
中国信息通信研究院的报告称,2016年国产手机出货量达4.98亿部,占国内手机总出货量的88.9%。
“即使你已经接受美联储加息的现实,也还有其他原因感到紧张,”美银美林(Bank of America Merrill Lynch)新兴市场负责人戴维樠纳(David Hauner)表示。他指出,油价不断下跌和中国经济增长放缓,是CBOE的VIX指数(反映投资者情绪的晴雨表)所衡量的市场波动水平自8月以来居高不下的其中两大原因。
Here are our top 10expectations for China in 2014:
尽管2016年受调查机场的平均准点率同比提高7%至70.4%,但航班平均延误时长为33分钟。
[skr?ul]

成功的创业者在自己创业之前,通常都曾在同一领域的其他公司工作过。在业内工作数年时间,并且找一位优秀的导师,将为你的创业成功奠定坚实的基础。从前辈的错误中总结经验教训,思考如何改进他们的模式。找到愿意指导你的人,然后再考虑自立门户。
charity
的确,价格不是一切。但即使是看空者也同意:一切都有价格。
Germany ranks No. 4 overall. The nation ranks No. 10 in Citizenship. It is also No. 1 in Entrepreneurship and No. 3 in Best Countries for Education.
9. Firefighter

Footnotes

  • 津沪闽粤四省市首禁限落后建材产品项目
  • “有1400人出境去参加圣战,加入叙利亚和伊拉克境内的恐怖主义组织。” Valls告诉BFMTV。

It’s been one of the worst years for investment decision-making on record, almost across the board. No strategy worked consistently, save for the type of shareholder activism that only a handful of Wall Street’s billionaire titans are able to engage in.
单词channel 联想记忆:
It was not an auspicious start to the new year for bitcoin investors.
Shipments of cellphones made by Chinese companies reached 498 million in 2016, accounting for 88.9% of the country's total shipments, according to the report from the China Academy of Information and Communication Technology.
Bernard Baumohl 作为Economic Outlook Group的首席经济学家,表示他甚至更乐观的认为接下来的两年将会成为至少近十年以来形势最好的两年,他还称“有很多证据充分的表明了经济正在恢复的势头”。
在婴儿出生前治疗出生缺陷

“暂缓出让+拟推限购” 苏州楼市的天要变了?

References

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